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Guide Toward a Planned Society: From Roosevelt to Nixon

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In fact, he often stated that there must be reform in order to stave off socialism; if government did not act, the people would turn to more extreme measures to seek remedies. In addition, TR was a politician who understood the need to compromise in order to implement his ideas. Coming into office following William McKinley's assassination, Roosevelt pledged to maintain the fallen President's policies so as not to upset the nation in a time of mourning.

And even when he began to chart his own course, Roosevelt knew that he had to work with congressional Republicans to get the G. One of Roosevelt's central beliefs was that the government had the right to regulate big business to protect the welfare of society. However, this idea was relatively untested. Although Congress had passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in , former Presidents had only used it sparingly.

So when the Department of Justice filed suit in early against the Northern Securities Company, it sent shockwaves through the business community. The suit alarmed the business community, which had hoped that Roosevelt would follow precedent and maintain a "hands-off" approach to the market economy. At issue was the claim that the Northern Securities Company—a giant railroad combination created by a syndicate of wealthy industrialists and financiers led by J. Morgan—violated the Sherman Antitrust Act because it was a monopoly.

In , the U. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the government and ordered the company dismantled. The high court's action was a major victory for the administration and put the business community on notice that although this was a Republican administration, it would not give business free rein to operate without regard for the public welfare. Roosevelt then turned his attention to the nation's railroads, in part because the Interstate Commerce Commission ICC had notified the administration about abuses within the industry.


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In addition, a large segment of the population supported efforts to regulate the railroads because so many people and businesses were dependent on them. Roosevelt's first achievement in this area was the Elkins Act of , which ended the practice of railroad companies granting shipping rebates to certain companies. The rebates allowed big companies to ship goods for much lower rates than smaller companies could obtain. However, the railroads and big companies were able to undermine the act.

Recognizing that the Elkins Act was not effective, Roosevelt pursued further railroad regulation and undertook one of his greatest domestic reform efforts.

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The legislation, which became known as the Hepburn Act, proposed enhancing the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission to include the ability to regulate shipping rates on railroads. One of the main sticking points of the bill was what role the courts would play in reviewing the rates. Conservative senators who opposed the legislation, acting on behalf of the railroad industry, tried to use judicial review to make the ICC essentially powerless. By giving the courts, which were considered friendly to the railroads, the right to rule on individual cases, the ICC had less power to remedy the inequities of the rates.

When Roosevelt encountered this resistance in Congress, he took his case to the people, making a direct appeal on a speaking tour through the West.


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  8. He succeeded in pressuring the Senate to approve the legislation. The Hepburn Act marked one of the first times a President appealed directly to the people, using the press to help him make his case. The passage of the act was considered a major victory for Roosevelt and highlighted his ability to balance competing interests to achieve his goals.

    Roosevelt believed that the government should use its resources to help achieve economic and social justice. When the country faced an anthracite coal shortage in the fall of because of a strike in Pennsylvania, the President thought he should intervene. As winter approached and heating shortages were imminent, he started to formulate ideas about how he could use the executive office to play a role—even though he did not have any official authority to negotiate an end to the strike.

    Roosevelt called both the mine owners and the representatives of labor together at the White House. When management refused to negotiate, he hatched a plan to force the two sides to talk: instead of sending federal troops to break the strike and force the miners back to work, TR threatened to use troops to seize the mines and run them as a federal operation. Faced with Roosevelt's plan, the owners and labor unions agreed to submit their cases to a commission and abide by its recommendations. Roosevelt called the settlement of the coal strike a "square deal," inferring that everyone gained fairly from the agreement.

    Scientists may depict the problems that will affect the environment based on available evidence, but their solution is not the responsibility of scientists but of society as a whole. There must be a reason why some people can afford to live well.

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    Biography of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt

    They must have worked for it. I only feel angry when I see waste.

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt Declares War on Japan (Full Speech) - War Archives

    When I see people throwing away things we could use. A healthy ecology is the basis for a healthy economy.

    Representative, The Green Lifestyle Handbook , You cannot affirm the power plant and condemn the smokestack, or affirm the smoke and condemn the cough. Environmentally friendly cars will soon cease to be an option Sustainable development - development that does not destroy or undermine the ecological, economic, or social basis on which continued development depends - is the only viable pathway to a more secure and hopeful future for rich and poor alike. The Truly Healthy environment is not merely safe but stimulating. Stewart , Environmental Science and Technology , February The Silence of a shut park does not sound like the country silence: it is tense and confirmed.

    He who knows what sweets and virtues are in the ground, the waters, the plants, the heavens, and how to come at these enchantments, is the rich and royal man. One touch of nature makes the whole world kin. Let the clean air blow the cobwebs from your body. Air is medicine. I've known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins.

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    My soul has grown deep like the rivers. The belief that we can manage the Earth and improve Nature is probably the biggest expression of human pride, but it has deep roots in the past and is almost universal. We have forgotten how to be good guests, how to walk lightly on the earth as its other creatures do. I know that our bodies were made to thrive only in pure air, and the scenes in which pure air is found.

    Like winds and sunsets, wild things were taken for granted until progress began to do away with them. Nature provides exceptions to every rule.

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    Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Graham Jr.. Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Graham Jr. An interpretive, historical account of the concept, major models, and actual practice of national planning in the United States from the Great Depression to the s, with speculation on future developments. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details