There are still stereotypes about the appropriateness of different types of sport to men and to women, e.
These stereotypes and connotations of sports are a social framework which influences the decisions to take part in the existing offers of sports clubs and other institutions. They may have an effect as a symbolic barrier, as elderly men in particular do not want to act like females [ 31 ]. It is interesting to note that imported movements like Tai Chi or Yoga, which originally do not have a gendered participation profile, are stereotyped as female sports as well. The preferred settings of sports vary across the age groups.
Adolescents and young adults primarily participate in activities of sports clubs whereas middle-aged people and elderly prefer an informal organizational frame.
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About two third of physically active older people organize their sports without any institutional frame. Sports clubs rank second and commercial organizations rank third in this list of settings [ 1 , 3 , 18 ]. This gendered profile of club membership is a characteristic feature of all ages.
Retrospective longitudinal data support these findings as elderly men are far more often long-standing members of sports cubs than elderly women [ 24 ]. In contrast commercially run organizations and public offers are more often chosen by elderly women. Across all age groups, the increase in participation rates has been stronger for girls and women than for boys and men.
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Against this background the traditional gender gap in participation is diminishing or even reversing. All empirical cross-sectional studies document a relation between age group and participation in sports: the older the group, the lower participation rates are.
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There is a general effect of social stratification on participation rates. This general effect is stronger with respect to elderly women than with respect to men, i. Social stratification has also an effect on participation of the elderly in a life-course perspective. Higher education correlates positively with more continuous sports activity, and cultural capital seems to be more important than economic capital. Surveys indicate a high stability of participation profiles across life course activity profile on the one hand and inactivity profile on the other hand. At the same time, they document a high variability of participation courses across the lifespan.
On the basis of longitudinal surveys, it can be concluded that age is an influencing factor of participation in sports, but it is far less prominent than it was in the past and less important as often suggested in the public and academic interpretations of participation rates. The age effect is significant even when the health status of the elderly people is controlled. At a closer look it seems to be of significant relevance only with respect to elderly men.
A healthy lifestyle is the most often referred motivational dimension of adults and elderly people. The dimension of fun and joy is far less prominent for elderly people than for youth and young adults. The choice of sports is adapted to the physical fitness with advancing age, which means a decrease of preferences for games and an increase in preferences for sports with moderate performance i. Sports of the elderly in general is not gendered, because most types of sport are done by men and women likewise, but some types of sports have a strong gendered profile.
Most notable is a gender pattern in activities referred to gymnastics: these activities are preferred by elderly women and strongly connoted as typical female and as such not appropriate for men. At the same time, we have to realize that the elderly population is not a homogeneous group as often suggested. Against this background there are a variety of blind spots in the stock of research. We will use the term, physically active persons in this article in the sense that the persons are involved in physical exercises and sports. For a discussion and comparative analysis of the data of the Eurobarometer [ 26 ] which covers 25 member states of the EU, see Hartmann-Tews [ 28 ].
There are also some studies from other countries with data from a life course perspective [ 17 , 35 , 51 ]. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Sport participation of the elderly—the role of gender, age, and social class. It also discusses how migration control policies in southern European countries shape the migrant smuggling phenomenon and the smuggling 'business'.
New ethnographic research is drawn upon to explore important questions of mobility, locality and identity. As population mobility grows in an ever more crowded world, the Global Forum on Migration and Development GFMD has emerged as the most important global mechanism to deal with the urgent challenges it presents. This book explores fresh strategies proposed by the GFMD in its fourth year of operation in Mexico and beyond. In , there were million international migrants worldwide, nearly two and a half times the number in By , international migration is likely to expand sharply in scale, reach and complexity, due to growing demographic disparities, environmental change, shifting global political and economic dynamics, technological innovations and social networks.
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Migration can bring substantial gains to families in less-developed countries, and mobile labor is an axiomatic feature of the global economy. Yet outward migration of skilled workers can seriously retard development at home, and exert pressure on wages in host nations.
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Balancing these and other conflicting concerns requires the substantive and expert discourse offered in this book. Contributors discuss, and propose concrete solutions to, vital issues such as the debilitating costs of cross-border labor recruitment and the provision of social and income protection for foreign contract workers. With suggestions on how to facilitate connections between transnational families, and gender- and family-sensitive immigration regimes, this book aims to foster collaborative intergovernmental links as well as partnerships between governments, civil society and international organizations.
It shows how the GFMD can positively influence policy and institutional behavior while addressing wider systemic factors in protecting mobile workers. Encyclopedia of Migration Bean, Frank D. With migration being partly defined in the modern era by law and public policy, the subject includes knowledge not only from these areas but also from a full array of academic disciplines.
Hence, this encyclopedia will include material from such fields as anthropology, archaeology, criminology, demography, economics, education, ethnic studies, geography, health sciences, history, law, linguistics, public policy, political science, psychology and sociology.
enter site As migration has been such an important part of the peopling of all parts of the world, this encyclopedia will also include synopses of major geographic movements from ancient and early history. The International Encyclopedia of Migration will be a significant resource for students, teachers, practitioners, scholars and researchers interested in or working on any aspect of migration in any field.
It should be particularly useful for people seeking information and knowledge about migration from fields other than their own. It argues that justice should be determined by the victims of genocide rather than a detached legal system, since such a form of justice is more consistent with a socially grounded ethics, with a democracy that privileges citizen decision-making, and with human rights. From show trials to state- enforced forgiveness, the book examines various methods that have been used since to punish the individuals and groups responsible for genocide and how they have ultimately failed to deliver true justice to the victims.
The only way to end this failure, the book points out, is to return justice to the victims. This simple proposition; however, challenges the Enlightenment tradition of Western law which was built on the refusal to allow victims to determine the measure of justice. That would amount, according to Bacon, Hegel, and Kant to a revenge system and bring social chaos. But, as this book points out, forgiveness is only something victims can give, no-one can demand it.
In order to establish a lasting peace, it is necessary to re-examine the philosophical and theoretical refusal to return justice to the victims. The engaging argument put forth in this book can help deliver true justice and re-establish international social harmony in the aftermath of genocide.
Genocide is ubiquitous in the modern, global world.
It's understanding is highly relevant for the understanding of specific and perpetuating challenges in migration. Genocide forces the migration of millions to avoid crimes against humanity. When they flee war zones they bring their fears, hates, and misery with them. So migration research must engage fully with the experience of genocide, its human consequences and the ethical dilemmas it poses to all societies.
Not to do so, will make it more difficult to understand and live with newcomers and to achieve some sort of harmony in host countries, as well as those which are centers of genocide. To understand its consequences, it is fundamental to know the quality of the available data, the measurement instruments for analyzing migration, and to have an appropriate demographic framework for studying the demographic effects of migration.
Whereas the first section focuses on analysis, the second part deals with the different demographic behaviours of migrants compared to residents. Further it demonstrates the motives and explanations for migration. The final section analyzes geographic and economic aspects. The authors combine demographic analysis, interdisciplinary research, and international illustrations to explore current trends in migration patterns and processes. This book is valuable reading for an interdisciplinary academic audience as well as for regional planners and policy makers.
In a highly mobile world, where voluntary and enforced movements of population are increasing and likely to continue to grow, that relationship needs to be better understood, yet the terminology is often vague and the issues are wide-ranging. Getting to grips with them requires tools drawn from different disciplines and professions.
Such a multidisciplinary approach is central to this book. Six historical studies are integrated with chapters by a theologian, geographer, anthropologist, social worker and psychiatrist to produce an evaluation that addresses key concepts and methodologies, and reflects practical involvement as well as academic scholarship. Ranging from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, the book explores the causes of mental breakdown among migrants; the psychological changes stemming from their struggles with challenging life circumstances; and changes in medical, political and public attitudes and responses in different eras and locations.
It examines the linkages and impact of migration on gender and care regimes, human resource flows, remittances, poverty, and political organizations by or for migrants. Anhand von Interviews mit philippinischen Arbeitsmigrantinnen in kanadischen Privathaushalten wird ein tiefgreifender Einblick in die soziale Situation dieser Frauen gegeben, die in und zwischen verschiedenen Lebenswelten leben. Die spezifischen Gegebenheiten in Kanada und auf den Philippinen werden ebenfalls kurz skizziert.
Migration, Masculinities and Reproductive Labour Men of the Home Series : Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship Gallo, Ester, Scrinzi, Francesca This innovative book analyses the role gender plays in the relationship between globalisation, migration and reproductive labour.