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PDF Sportbeteiligung von Jugendlichen in Ost- und Westdeutschland (German Edition)

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There are still stereotypes about the appropriateness of different types of sport to men and to women, e.

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These stereotypes and connotations of sports are a social framework which influences the decisions to take part in the existing offers of sports clubs and other institutions. They may have an effect as a symbolic barrier, as elderly men in particular do not want to act like females [ 31 ]. It is interesting to note that imported movements like Tai Chi or Yoga, which originally do not have a gendered participation profile, are stereotyped as female sports as well. The preferred settings of sports vary across the age groups.

Adolescents and young adults primarily participate in activities of sports clubs whereas middle-aged people and elderly prefer an informal organizational frame.

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About two third of physically active older people organize their sports without any institutional frame. Sports clubs rank second and commercial organizations rank third in this list of settings [ 1 , 3 , 18 ]. This gendered profile of club membership is a characteristic feature of all ages.

Retrospective longitudinal data support these findings as elderly men are far more often long-standing members of sports cubs than elderly women [ 24 ]. In contrast commercially run organizations and public offers are more often chosen by elderly women. Across all age groups, the increase in participation rates has been stronger for girls and women than for boys and men.


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Against this background the traditional gender gap in participation is diminishing or even reversing. All empirical cross-sectional studies document a relation between age group and participation in sports: the older the group, the lower participation rates are.

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There is a general effect of social stratification on participation rates. This general effect is stronger with respect to elderly women than with respect to men, i. Social stratification has also an effect on participation of the elderly in a life-course perspective. Higher education correlates positively with more continuous sports activity, and cultural capital seems to be more important than economic capital. Surveys indicate a high stability of participation profiles across life course activity profile on the one hand and inactivity profile on the other hand. At the same time, they document a high variability of participation courses across the lifespan.

On the basis of longitudinal surveys, it can be concluded that age is an influencing factor of participation in sports, but it is far less prominent than it was in the past and less important as often suggested in the public and academic interpretations of participation rates. The age effect is significant even when the health status of the elderly people is controlled. At a closer look it seems to be of significant relevance only with respect to elderly men.

A healthy lifestyle is the most often referred motivational dimension of adults and elderly people. The dimension of fun and joy is far less prominent for elderly people than for youth and young adults. The choice of sports is adapted to the physical fitness with advancing age, which means a decrease of preferences for games and an increase in preferences for sports with moderate performance i. Sports of the elderly in general is not gendered, because most types of sport are done by men and women likewise, but some types of sports have a strong gendered profile.

Most notable is a gender pattern in activities referred to gymnastics: these activities are preferred by elderly women and strongly connoted as typical female and as such not appropriate for men. At the same time, we have to realize that the elderly population is not a homogeneous group as often suggested. Against this background there are a variety of blind spots in the stock of research. We will use the term, physically active persons in this article in the sense that the persons are involved in physical exercises and sports. For a discussion and comparative analysis of the data of the Eurobarometer [ 26 ] which covers 25 member states of the EU, see Hartmann-Tews [ 28 ].

There are also some studies from other countries with data from a life course perspective [ 17 , 35 , 51 ]. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Sport participation of the elderly—the role of gender, age, and social class. It also discusses how migration control policies in southern European countries shape the migrant smuggling phenomenon and the smuggling 'business'.

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